Blood vessels (veh-suls): The system of flexible tubes—arteries, capillaries and veins—that carries blood through the body. Oxygen and nutrients are delivered by arteries to tiny, thin-walled capillaries that feed them to cells and pick up waste material, including carbon dioxide. Capillaries pass the waste to veins, which take the blood back to the heart and lungs, where carbon dioxide is let out through your breath as you exhale.

This fizzy yogurt-like fermented milk is chock-full of probiotics, healthy bacteria that colonize your gut. Sipping kefir has been linked to greater weight loss and reduction in waist circumference compared to a control drink, per research. Could it be the probiotics? In another double-blind randomized trial published in the British Journal of Nutrition, when participants (who tended to carry fat around their waists) consumed a fermented milk drink containing probiotics for 12 weeks, they benefited from a lower BMI and a smaller waist and hip circumference. Probiotics may protect against inflammation in your GI tract, which has been linked to abdominal fat storage. Kefir can be tangy, but try to avoid flavored kefirs packed with added sugars; sweeten it naturally by adding it to a fruit smoothie.
In addition to weight, women over 50 are also at a greater risk of developing chronic illnesses -- including high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease -- due to the changes in hormone levels. Weight-loss programs that focus on health issues may also work on helping you lose those unwanted plans. Diet programs that focus on heart-health include the Ornish Diet and the TLC Diet; programs that focus on blood sugar control include the carbohydrate-counting diet and using the Glycemic Index to help make dietary choices.

Arteries (are-te-rease): The blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart for delivery to every part of your body. Arteries look like thin tubes or hoses. The walls are made of a tough outer layer, a middle layer of muscle and a smooth inner wall that helps blood flow easily. The muscle layer expands and contracts to help blood move.


To lose belly fat, you need to reduce your calorie intake even more. To lose a pound of fat, you must eat 3,500 calories fewer than you burn. A reduction of 500 to 1,000 calories a day results in a weight loss of 1 to 2 pounds a week. For some people over 60, this caloric deficit is too aggressive and will put them at a caloric intake that's too low to provide optimal nutrients and energy. For example, the average sedentary woman over 50 may burn only 1,600 calories a day. Reducing that intake by 500 calories leaves you with only1,100 calories a day, which is extremely difficult to sustain long term. You might need to modify your weight-loss goal to lose approximately 1/2 pound per week, which requires a 250-calorie deficit a day. Increasing physical activity can also help you raise your daily burn so that you can create a 500-calorie deficit.

This visceral fat is located beneath the muscles in the stomach and thereby poses several negative impacts on each and every organ in the body through the production of excess hormones and toxins or chemicals, whenever it exceeds the level. It put you at risk for many health issues like type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, dementia, colorectal cancer, etc.
If you ever heard that “you lose fat in an even way, yet the belly is the last to go”, now you are starting to understand why. This is how people end up skinny all over, yet fat in the belly. Well, what if we can take the resistance and guide you through an ultra optimized way of losing weight. Would you be skinny everywhere? The answer is one gigantic YES!
1000 crunches a night may get you strong abdominal muscles, but with a full layer of fat on top, you will not get the results you really want. Instead of all those crunches, do exercises that engage multiple muscle groups and work your cardiovascular system. Try planking, where you hold yourself in a push-up position, resting your forearms on the ground. Try 3 or 4 sets of holding for 30 seconds each. Getting up and moving throughout the day by going for walks will also help.

Since insulin sensitivity is at its highest in the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle, and carb intake is free to be at its highest, exercise can be more aerobic (long, moderate heart-rate-elevating cardio exercises). It is at this time that you can do your best high performance cardio training. Here you can challenge yourself with longer-term exercises that may be more “stressful” for your body, like long bike rides, tabata sprints, night-long dance sessions, and the like. It is at this time in your cycle that your body can handle the most aerobic stress.
It's no surprise that Dr. Dean Ornish's program is such a powerful tool for weight loss, considering its easy adaptability as a lasting lifestyle. The diet is mostly plant-based, keeps sodium intake in moderation, and limits coffee to a cup a day (two cups decaf) — so if you're looking to lose weight while keeping your java flow, you may want to consider another plan.
Last but certainly not least we have the DASH Diet. The DASH diet is a balanced diet similar to the Mediterranean diet. It is the result of research carried out in 4 medical centers and sponsored by The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The main purpose of this diet is to help you lower your high blood pressure through healthy eating practices and lifestyle changes. By eating healthy food and following an active lifestyle you also promote weight loss. It is a diet that can be really helpful especially for women over 40 and 50. The basic principle of the DASH diet for losing weight is the following:  first you need to calculate how many calories you need per day and then you must adjust the calories you consume and the calories you burn so that you constantly create a calorie deficit or ensure that you are not creating a calorie surplus. In other words you need to consume fewer calories than what you burn.

But while walking can definitely help burn belly fat, it's not quite that simple, Steven Goelzer, a certified personal trainer and metabolic specialist at Life Time Athletic in Laguna Nigel, CA, told POPSUGAR. "Burning fat depends way more on hormones than the type of workout you're doing," Goelzer said. "Low-intensity exercise (like walking) should burn a high percentage of fat, but the volume of training needed does not necessarily fit well in most people's schedules," he added, noting that a person's metabolism also helps determine how much walking they'd need to do to start to burn fat.
I want to lose my stomach fat and get a flat stomach by the end of May this year, but be able to keep it that way long-term. I also would like to get my thighs to slim down so I have more of a thigh gap so I do not get these irritating red bumps from wearing shorts. I'm not positive if I would like abs, but either way, which is a good exercise for a flat stomach and thinner legs? I am currently 146 lbs, 5'1'', and I am a size 10-12 in jeans. If you could help me reach my goal by then that would be great!!

This question is on so many minds: how can I lose belly fat...and fast? While there's no magic formula of food and exercise to reduce belly fat with the snap of your fingers, there are nutrition choices, exercises and lifestyle changes that can help. Here's your guide to understanding exactly what belly fat is and how you might be able to reduce it over time.
It may be quick and easy to pick up a delicious cheeseburger when you’re running late and have skipped lunch, but it can be a disaster for your diet and belly fat-burning plans. The amount of saturated fats, grease, and unwanted triglycerides found in fast food is precisely what you don’t want if you’re trying to burn visceral fat, so while it might be hard, cutting out fast food has to be near the top of your list. According to the experts at Johns Hopkins Medicine, if you want to lower fat intake, it is best to avoid fast foods and instead, include low-fat dairy products, lean cuts of meat and poultry, and ‘good’ fats like olive oil.
Fitness Disclaimer: The information contained in this site is for educational purposes only. Vigorous high-intensity exercise is not safe or suitable for everyone. You should consult a physician before beginning a new diet or exercise program and discontinue exercise immediately and consult your physician if you experience pain, dizziness, or discomfort. The results, if any, from the exercises may vary from person-to-person. Engaging in any exercise or fitness program involves the risk of injury. Mercola.com or our panel of fitness experts shall not be liable for any claims for injuries or damages resulting from or connected with the use of this site. Specific questions about your fitness condition cannot be answered without first establishing a trainer-client relationship.

At the heart of its flexible system: SmartPoints. SmartPoints derive primarily from number of calories; sugar and saturated fat drive the number up, protein brings it down. Getting a feel for the number of points that different foods typically “cost” in order to stay on your daily “budget” is a great way to cultivate healthy decision-making: A fried chicken wing is 7 points, while 3 oz. of chicken breast without the skin is 2 points. A sugar-laden Coca-Cola is 9 points, but so is a dinner-sized serving of Moroccan chicken rice and potatoes. Some foods are zero points: fruits and vegetables, skinless chicken and turkey breast, seafood, eggs, nonfat yogurt. Being encouraged to eat certain items in this way helps to restructure your mindset around food.
Created in 2003 by cardiologist Arthur Agatston, this low-carb diet features three phases. The first phase is the most restrictive, limiting carbs such as potatoes and rice. Each subsequent phase becomes more lenient, and the diet emphasizes lean protein, unsaturated fats, and low-glycemic carbs such as nonstarchy vegetables. South Beach promotes lasting lifestyle changes, according to the Mayo Clinic. (21)
Yes, you read that right. Simply walking can go a long way toward helping you shed belly fat, says Sahmura Gonzalez, a master trainer at Crunch in New York City. "It seems so simple, but 45-60 min of brisk walking every day can do wonders for your metabolism," says Gonzalez. "Plus, it ensures that you don't over-train, which can lead to an over-production of cortisol—a stress hormone that's been shown to contribute to belly fat." In fact, if your walking workout helps you unwind after a stressful day or work through emotions that might otherwise rile you up and stress you out, there's a chance it'll help you lower cortisol levels, which in turn can keep belly fat in check, says Gonzalez. And brisk walking is an effective way to drop pounds—including the belly fat that's hiding your abdominal muscles. "One hour of rapid walking a day can lead to 1 pound of fat loss a week," says Gonzalez. "That is significant!" (Discover how you can lose up to six times more weight with Prevention's walking plan.)
The results: estrogen isn’t an angel or a demon; it’s a hormone that should ideally be within a healthy range, and too much or too little can be dangerous. So far, some studies suggest that a high-fiber, lower-carb diet might be useful in treating estrogen overload, but the best advice for anyone with PCOS or another serious problem will come from a real endocrinologist.
Instead of satisfying your sweet tooth with some refined sugar, turn to berries and enjoy a slimmer waistline in no time. Berries are loaded with antioxidants, which can help reduce inflammation throughout the body, and research from the University of Michigan reveals that rats given a berry-rich diet shaved off a significant proportion of their belly fat when compared to a control group. Berries like strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, and blackberries are also loaded with resveratrol, an antioxidant pigment that has been linked to reductions in belly fat and a reduced risk of dementia, to boot.
Could you go for some guac right now? You're in luck. A recent review found that avocado eating can help improve markers (like a large waistline and increased blood pressure and high blood sugar) associated with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors which increases your odds of heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Avocados contain healthy fats, as well as other nutrients, like magnesium and phytosterols, that may help improve blood lipid profiles and blood pressure. An earlier study in 2013 suggested that avocado lovers slash their likelihood of metabolic syndrome in half.
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The researchers hypothesize that participants who abstained from animal products dropped significantly more pounds since plant-based foods include loads of filling fiber and slow-to-digest complex carbs. Though more research is needed to confirm these results, the study authors write, "Vegetarian diets appeared to have significant benefits on weight reduction compared to non-vegetarian diets."
It’s wise to want to eliminate sugary drinks from your diet, but replacing them with “diet” versions or drinks with artificial sweeteners is not the solution. One study conducted by researchers from Marquette University and the Medical College of Wisconsin showed that artificial sweeteners could actually contribute to weight gain in a way that does not happen with natural sugars. Other studies have shown that drinking artificial sweeteners was highly correlated to an occurrence of dementia and stroke.
If you want to lose fat, then you must work out. One of the most effective and efficient ways to lose unwanted belly fat, or simply extra weight distributed all over, is burst training or HIIT workouts. High-intensity interval training–style has been shown to be an excellent way to burn fat in a short period of time and help improve the physical performance of athletes of all kinds. (8)
Ranging from just-juice to just-tea cleanses, these typically short-term plans can be dangerous. “Detoxes and cleanses are usually low in calories, protein, and fiber, all nutrients that our bodies need to function,” says Alissa Rumsey, RD, who is in private practice in New York City. “These plans leave you feeling hungry and cranky, causing a rebound food binge once you stop the detox.”
People were not asked to count calories at all. Over the course of a year, both groups attended 22 classes reinforcing these very sound principles — and all participants had access to health educators who guided them in behavioral modification strategies, such as emotional awareness, setting goals, developing self-efficacy (also known as willpower), and utilizing social support networks, all to avoid falling back into unhealthy eating patterns.
Chronic stress may increase levels of stress hormones such as cortisol in your body. This can cause increased hunger and result in weight gain. If you’re looking to lose weight, you should review possible ways to decrease or better handle excessive stress in your life. Although this often demands substantial changes, even altering small things – such as posture – may immediately affect your stress hormone levels, and perhaps your weight.
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